Σάββατο, 11 Μαρτίου 2017

Liquid Love, Facebook and Friendship: a case study Konstantinos Gogalis University of Peloponnese

Liquid Love, Facebook and Friendship: a case study


Konstantinos Gogalis


University of Peloponnese

Abstract
According to Bauman’s Liquid Love (2003 ), the advance in virtual proximity
makes human connections frequent and shallower and simultaneously intense
and shorter. It makes us wonder if “friendships” on social networks are for “the
good, the pleasant or useful” (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book VIII ).
The aim of this study is to investigate three different types of relationships
between young Internet users; exclusive Facebook friend, recently added
Facebook friend and exclusive face-to-face friend with regard to social
attraction, self-disclosure, predictability, trust, gender, length of relationship,
self-esteem and sociability.
A questionnaire was distributed in a private school of Athens to 158 students
with active accounts on Facebook (case study ). The findings show that students
with the largest number of friends in real life, also have a larger number of
friends on Facebook. There is moderate negative correlation between self-esteem
and hours spent on Facebook and moderate positive correlation between
sociality and the number of friends on Facebook. The values of friendship
(social attraction, self-disclosure, predictability and trust ) within the Facebook
“environment” are always more intense than in that outside Facebook. It was
also found that boys have higher levels of self-esteem and sociability, but the
differences are more pronounced in the former than in the latter.
Teenagers use technology, specifically social networks, to meet their needs.
This use must be understood and analyzed according to their circumstance and
not according to the expectations of adults. Technology is fully integrated into
the their daily routines (Livingstone, 2008: 395 ), thereby reshaping the
environment in which they live, by negotiating their identities and interacting
mostly with peers they know (boyd, 2014: 9-10 ). The search for self and identity
is associated within the context of sociability and friendship. A social network
like Facebook is the frame of reference.

Introduction

“O my friends, there is no friend ”
J. Derrida, The Politics of Friendship

The above quotation, attributed to Aristotle by Derrida1, and the ensuing
debate on friendship (Foucault2, Agamben3 ) are quite indicative of the
ways in which the notion of friendship bisects the social, psychological and
political fields.
In recent years, the phenomenal growth of social networks —partic -
ularly Facebook— contributed to make it clear that social networking
constitutes the most prominent choice for developing interpersonal
relationships between adolescents, consequently impelling social scientists
to produce relevant studies.
Bauman in his book Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds (2003)
criticizes the relationships in our liquid modern world. The notion of
“liquid love” describes connections as virtual relationships. Those who
were born after 1980 have been nicknamed “Digital Natives” (Prensky,
2001 ) or the “NET Generation” (Tapscott, 1998 ). Their lives are intensely
connected with technology and revolve around the use of computers, video
games, digital devices that can reproduce music, mobile phones and all the
other tools of the digital era (Prensky, 2001 ). Technology is fully incor po -
rated in their daily routines (Livingstone, 2008:395 ). In the liquid modern
setting of life, relationships are perhaps the most common, acute, deeply
felt and troublesome incarnations of ambivalence. He maintains that the
circulation of instant messages between Internet “friends” is actually of
greater value than the messages themselves. Bauman’s approach reminds
us of Anderson (1991 ), who coined the term “imagined community”
to describe the mystery of one’s tendency to identify within a broad circle
of total strangers, with whom he or she feels that the things they share
in common are important enough to make them a member of such a
community. According to Bauman, the advances in virtual proximity make
human connections more frequent and shallower, whilst simultaneously
being shorter and more intense. It makes us wonder whether Internet
“friendship” lean towards “the good, the pleasant or the useful” (Aristotle,
Nicomachean Ethics, VIII, 3 ).
This study aims to investigate whether certain psychological traits of
adolescent Internet users could provide similar behavioral patterns within
the context of their Internet friendships. It focuses on the differences
between three types of relationships between adolescent Internet users
(Facebook-exclusive friend, recent Facebook friend and non-Facebook
friend ), in particular among students of a private high school in Athens
(case study ) considering social attraction, self-disclosure, predictability,
trust, gender, duration of the relationship, self-esteem and sociability.

1 To define friendship is to define an absolute sense of mourning. In the presence of
the friend we mourn subjective autonomy and come to the realization of its inherent
impossibility (Derrida, 1996 ).
2 “… a relationship that is still formless, which is friendship: the sum of everything
through which they can give each other pleasure” (Foucault, 1997:135 ).
3 The friend lies at the very heart of philosophy; ‘philos’ (Greek ) meaning ‘friend’
(Agamben, 2009:25 ). “…to recognize someone as a friend means not being able to
recognize him as ‘something’ “(Agamben, 2009:31 ).

Identity: representations and practices Editors Silvia Valencich Frota Marianela Barrios Aquino

Editors’ introduction

Marianela Barrios Aquino  Silvia Frota

University of Sussex University of Lisbon


This there is at least one point that seems to reach agreement: the inter -
disciplinary nature of the study of identity and the necessity thereof.
By interdisciplinarity we mean the possibility presented by the fertile
space between disciplines (McGregor, 2005:4 ) to shed some light upon
the subject of identity, that is to say, to conduct identity studies using
theoretical and methodological frameworks developed under the scrutiny
of different disciplines will result in a unified body of knowledge beyond
that of the individual disciplines. Ideally, the interdisciplinary nature of
the work is such, that “the sum of its parts, the whole has totally different
properties, to the point that the original contributions are no longer
identifiable” (McGregor, 2005:5 ), thus becoming one single, coherent body
of knowledge. This is also first and foremost the perspective of this book,
and the authors here included have greatly succeeded in establishing a
coherent and consistent dialogue between the disciplines involved in their
research.
Although interdisciplinary research seems to be a desired reality, the
realization of this principle should not be taken for granted. As a matter
of fact, in our perspective, it is still an issue to be considered and its success -
ful application should be celebrated as a great success in mediation, to be
attributed to the researcher. Sometimes — perhaps more often than not
— academic prejudice prevails and researchers from different fields look
at each other with a certain lack of confidence or at least with a certain
awkwardness.
We are not only referring to the broader philosophical, theoretical or
ideological side of interdisciplinary work. Instead we are set to consider
some practices that underlie academic fields and that are set in motion
almost surreptitiously /unconsciously. What makes a paper readable?
Which are the criteria or characteristics that determine the quality of a
paper in an academic perspective? What kind of language, structure and
content should an academic paper have? Is there an academic culture or
even an academic identity that should run through all the papers/works
that want to be considered “academic”? Entitled to the academic label?
And where does that ‘culture’ come from?
However, while although the vast majority of scholars would probably
agree upon the value of diversity, the respect of differences, the un avoidable
and healthy, prolific, productive ampleness of interdisciplinary work, they
would probably demand a common ground, something that would make
those texts recognizable as academic papers, infused with academic value.

Τετάρτη, 26 Μαρτίου 2014

Manos Spyridakis: The Liminal Worker

The Liminal Worker is about the experience of work, employment, employment insecurity and precariousness, from an anthropological point of view and in a context of high unemployment and crisis in the welfare state of contemporary Greek society. Particular emphasis is placed on how workers conceive of their condition in the workplace, their job deprivation and employment precariousness and how they attempt to deal with the effects these processes have upon their daily lives. In this view, The Liminal Worker points to the fact of a constant condition of liminality as a lived experience of workers in a post-Keynesian and de-industrialised framework, within which they are forcefully detached in symbolic and pragmatic terms from their former roles of supposed affluence, as well as from their former secure working trajectories and instead undertake a steady course of de-standardisation, coupled with feelings of ambiguity and bewilderment about their future. For this reason The Liminal Worker attempts to bring to the fore the way workers conceive of this situation through their ethnographic voices and testimonies against the antisocial background of current economic recession and crisis, as well as to contribute to the anthropologically-informed analysis and discussion of work and employment in the European context.

Δευτέρα, 27 Ιανουαρίου 2014

«Dispossession: The Performative in the Political»

Κρίση, κριτική και οι δυνατότητες της πολιτικής

Με την ευκαιρία της έκδοσης του «Dispossession: The Performative in the Political»
 Συνέντευξη της Αθηνάς Αθανασίου και της Τζούντιθ Μπάτλερ
στην Ειρήνη Αβραμοπούλου
μετάφραση:  Δημήτρης Ιωάννου
 Το βιβλίο Dispossession: The Performative in the Political της Judith Butler και της Αθηνάς Αθανασίου που κυκλοφόρησε στις αρχές του 2013 (Polity Press) είναι ένα βιβλίο προκλητικό για τη σκέψη, ένα βιβλίο σημαντικό. Όχι μόνο ακαδημαϊκά (οι σχετικές κριτικές έχουν επισημάνει ήδη τη θεωρητική του συνεισφορά), αλλά και για την πολιτική σκέψη και πράξη, καθώς εισάγει, επερωτά, αλλά και διευρύνει έννοιες κομβικές για την Αριστερά, την πολιτική και τα κινήματα, όπως η αποστέρηση, η αναγνώριση, η πληθυντική επιτελεστικότητα.

Παρασκευή, 25 Οκτωβρίου 2013

Μάνος Χατζιδάκις: "Ο νεοναζισμός δεν είναι οι άλλοι"

Πηγή: www.lifo.gr

"Ο νεοναζισμός, ο φασισμός, ο ρατσισμός και κάθε αντικοινωνικό και αντιανθρώπινο φαινόμενο συμπεριφοράς δεν προέρχεται από ιδεολογία, δεν περιέχει ιδεολογία, δεν συνθέτει ιδεολογία. Είναι η μεγεθυμένη έκφραση-εκδήλωση του κτήνους που περιέχουμε μέσα μας χωρίς εμπόδιο στην ανάπτυξή του, όταν κοινωνικές ή πολιτικές συγκυρίες συντελούν, βοηθούν, ενυσχύουν τη βάρβαρη και αντιανθρώπινη παρουσία του.  
 Η μόνη αντιβίωση για την καταπολέμηση του κτήνους που περιέχουμε είναι η Παιδεία. Η αληθινή παιδεία και όχι η ανεύθυνη εκπαίδευση και η πληροφορία χωρίς κρίση και χωρίς ανήσυχη αμφισβητούμενη συμπερασματολογία. Αυτή η παιδεία που δεν εφησυχάζει ούτε δημιουργεί αυταρέσκεια στον σπουδάζοντα, αλλά πολλαπλασιάζει τα ερωτήματα και την ανασφάλεια.

Πέμπτη, 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 2013

Πέμπτη, 1 Αυγούστου 2013

T. S. Eliot. Four Quartets

Time present and time past
Are both perhaps present in time future, 
And time future contained in time past.
If all time is eternally present
All time is unredeemable.

Παρασκευή, 12 Ιουλίου 2013

Γιάννης Ζαϊμάκης: Δημόσια ραδιοφωνία και τηλεόραση



Η κυβερνητική επιλογή του κλεισίματος της ΕΡΤ δεν είναι τυχαία. Αποτελεί δείγμα μιας στρατηγικής διακυβέρνησης υψηλού ρίσκου, σε μια περίοδο κατά την οποία το αφήγημα του success story δείχνει να αποδομείται. Για το επικοινωνιακό επιτελείο Σαμαρά, η «αμαρτωλή» ΕΡΤ αποτελούσε το ιδανικό πλαίσιο για την προβολή ενός εξουσιαστικού μοντέλου διακυβέρνησης με πολλούς αποδέκτες. Στο εσωτερικό, η εφαρμογή του δόγματος «νόμος και τάξη» θα ενίσχυε την ιδεολογική κυριαρχία της Νέας Δημοκρατίας σε ένα συντηρητικό ακροατήριο, μέρος του οποίου έχει αγκιστρωθεί στη Χρυσή Αυγή. Στο εξωτερικό, θα έδινε ένα ισχυρό μήνυμα στα πολιτικά ιερατεία της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και του ΔΝΤ, για την άμεση επιβολή των «αναγκαίων μεταρρυθμίσεων».

Πίσω από τους ατυχείς πολιτικούς τακτικισμούς της κυβέρνησης μπορούμε να αναγνωρίσουμε την προσδοκία μιας νεοφιλελεύθερης θεραπείας-σοκ, που διεκδικεί τον έλεγχο των μέσων πολιτιστικής παραγωγής και των εργασιακών σχέσεων στο χώρο των ΜΜΕ, καθώς και την εδραίωση ενός κλίματος γενικευμένης εργασιακής ανασφάλειας. Η ρήξη με τα πολιτισμικά σύμβολα του παρελθόντος συνοδευόταν από την ενίσχυση της αβεβαιότητας μιας νέας τάξης ελλήνων πρεκάριων, που ζουν υπό συνθήκες εξαθλίωσης, με αβέβαιο εργασιακό μέλλον, χωρίς εργασιακά και κοινωνικά δικαιώματα, οράματα και μισθολογικές προσδοκίες.

Κυριακή, 30 Ιουνίου 2013

Chicart - Κασμήματα αντικείμενα τέχνης



Δείτε τις δημιουργίες


Κοσμήματα, δημιουργήματα τέχνης που σε ταξιδεύουν από την Νίτσα Αργυροπούλου






Πέμπτη, 13 Ιουνίου 2013

Σάββατο, 6 Απριλίου 2013

Mark Mazower: Μια νέα εποχή των άκρων;

The Athens Review of books, Απρίλιος 2013, τεύχος 39 μεταφρασμένο το κείμενο της διάλεξης στο Deere (12/02/2013)

Τετάρτη, 2 Ιανουαρίου 2013

Κυριακή, 11 Νοεμβρίου 2012

Orhan Pamuk: Europe is turning away from Turkey – and the rest of the world


Whatever happened to liberté, égalité, fraternité? Fear of Muslims is putting Europe's secular tradition at risk.
  

I have spent my entire life at the borders of continental Europe. From the window of my home or office, I've looked out over the Bosphorus to see Asia on the other side; and so, in thinking about Europe and modernity, I have always felt, like the rest of the world, just a little bit provincial.
Like the many millions who live outside the west, I have had to understand my own identity while observing Europe from afar, and so, in the process of working out my identity, I've often wondered what Europe could represent for me and for us all. This is an experience I share with the majority of the world's population, but because Istanbul, my city, is situated just where Europe begins – or maybe where Europe ends – my thoughts and my resentments have been a little more pressing and constant.

The Bosphorus, which divides Istanbul, and Turkey, between Europe and Asia. Photograph: Kerim Okten/epa/Corbis

I come from one of the many upper-middle-class Istanbul families who wholeheartedly embraced the westernising, secularising reforms introduced in the 1920s and 30s by Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Turkish republic. For us, Europe was more than somewhere we could go to find a job, a place to trade with, or whose investors we could seek to attract: it was primarily a beacon of civilisation.

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